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Glossary

This glossary includes a range of terms commonly used throughout ACLEI’s corruption prevention products.

Asset protection model The asset protection model identifies integrity as a key asset requiring active management and protection, in the same way that agencies protect other traditional assets such as people and information. The model recognises that investment in, and proper management of, integrity and professional standards can build agency capability. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/key-concepts/asset-protec...
Best Fit Corruption Prevention This approach recognises there is no one ‘best practice’ solution to managing corruption risk and that what may be effective in one agency or environment may have limited impact in another.  A ‘best fit’ or ‘situational’ approach  uses a combination of strategies implemented contingent to environment and risk. See https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/key-concepts/what-best-ap...
Conflict of interest Refers to circumstances in which someone’s personal interests may conflict with their public duty. A conflict of interest exists when a reasonable person might perceive that a public official’s personal interest(s) could be favoured over their public duties. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/sites/default/files/aclei-investigation-report-...
The Corruption Handshake The relationship between willing or vulnerable law enforcement agency staff members (on the one hand) who cooperate with, or facilitate, the illicit activities of criminal groups (on the other). See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/key-concepts/nature-corru...
Declarable association A declarable association exists when an individual is associated (to varying degrees) with a person, group or organisation who are involved in (or perceived to be involved in) activity that is incompatible with the duties and functions of the individual and/or their agency. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/case-studies/case-study-2...
Grooming The deliberate targeting of law enforcement officers by outside parties seeking access to law enforcement through intimate relationships, family connections, or cultural and social links. Organised crime entities may attempt to compromise officer loyalty to their employer by exploiting their relationship  over an extended period. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/key-concepts/grooming
Matching measures to risk Contends that corruption prevention measures and treatments should be aligned to the level of corruption risk in an agency's operating environment. For example, an agency with a high level of corruption risk in the operating environment may be exposed to increased corruption vulnerabilities if measures and treatements are too simple.See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/key-concepts/matching-mea...
Person Place Purpose Approach (The Three Lens Approach) Viewing corruption risk from three perspectives,  or overlapping lenses: Person (the risks around the individual), Place (risks around the employment team, site or location) and Purpose (risks relvant to the type of work conducted). See :https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/key-concepts/what-best-ap...
Personal/Professional Nexus Describes the correlative relationship between a law enforcement officers' official duties and the decisions/actions taken in their private/personal lives. Some decisions/actions taken may be inconsistent with the professional responsibilities of the officer and may heighten the risk of corrupt compromise of the officer and law enforcement operations. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/corruption-prevention-videos
Reach back The act of former law enforcement officers seeking out and/or using their relationships with serving officers to acquire favours, access and information. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/sites/g/files/net846/f/18362_-_aclei_-_corrupti...
RED assessment The Relevant (R), Existing (E), and Desirable (D) Assessment provides a checklist of examples of internal corruption controls used by law enforcement agencies, and identifies the primary strategic benefit of their implementation. Use the checklist to assess which controls are relevant to the operating environment and, if relevant, whether they already exist or are a desirable activity. Controls identified as both relevant and desirable can be used to populate an action list to implement. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/integrity-framework-checklist-law-enforcement-a...
Self managed risk Where an individual attempts to deal with integrity issues alone and fails to report or to seek assistance. Self managing risk exposes staff to compromise, and denies the employer the opportunity to understand,  appreciate and deal with risk wholistically.  See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/sites/default/files/corruption_prevention_conce...
Shadow systems Describes the set of interactions among members of an agency that are outside the rules prescribed by formal agency processes and governance controls. This may include the informal network of relations within agencies that arise through informal communication channels and the informal procedures for getting things done. Shadow systems which subvert and undermine formal systems may heighten the risk of corrupt compromise. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/case-studies/case-study-3...
Social Capital Refers to the non-monetary benefit and/or improved social standing that can be gained through corrupt conduct. Maintaining social capital can be difficult where group expectations conflict with the officer's law enforcement responsibilities, particularly if the officer believes that loyalty to a group or culture should trump loyalty to the employer. See:  "It's all about the Money" at https://www.aclei.gov.au/corruption-prevention/corruption-prevention-myths
Unauthorised disclosure The act of disclosing information to a person (or persons) who is not authorised to receive it. Unauthorised disclosure may happen deliberately or inadvertently and may involve information pertaining to individuals or groups; law enforcement operations, capability and methodology; and systemic vulnerabilities. See: https://www.aclei.gov.au/Corruption-prevention/case-studies/case-study-4...